Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International  Sale of Goods  – when does it apply?

Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International  Sale of Goods was drafted in 1980 in Vienna. When the parties form different countries draft contract on the sale of goods, the issue of applicable law is especially crucial for them.  As a rule the parties may choose in the contract any law they like. At the same time, the question arises:  which law will be applicable in the absence of choice by the parties? Can international conventions containing substantive norms on the international sale of goods be applied in these situations?

Read more

Contractual penalty for the withdrawal from an agreement.

Until recently, the Supreme Court rulings concenring contractual penalty clause for the withdrawal from an agreement which in return was due to non-payment of the other party was not uniform. Part of rulings denied the legality of such clause whereas the other part acknowledged it. The whole issue of possibility to stipulate the contractual penalty […]

Business support service in Poland

Business support service in poland became a significant industry in the country.

When you ask  foreigners which Polish cities they have heard about they usually say Warsaw and Cracow. Soon, there is a good chance that Wroclaw will be a well know Polish city in the financial industry within the EU.

Read more

How to register a representative office in Poland

How to register a representative office in Poland?

As of January 1, 2012 some changes have been introduced to the rules governing the creation of representative office in Poland.

Procedures and requirements to establish a representative office in Poland are governed by the Act on the Freedom of Business Activity. Companies planning to open a representative office in Poland do not need to apply for permit from the Ministry of Economy prior to establishing its representative office.

Read more